30 Most Used Twitter Bootstrap Alternatives – CSS/UI Frameworks

Frameworks is one of useful front-end developers tool for faster and better development. With frameworks you can build a well structured, maintainable and up-gradable website. It also helps you save much on your time because there are plenty of readily available elements that you can use.

Nowadays, the number of frameworks have greatly increased, and as you may know, Bootstrap from Twitter is on the top standings. To help you pick the most appropriate framework to use, we have listed best frameworksavailable today for Bootstrap alternative. They offer unique and teasing features that differ from each other. Checkout!

1. Pure

If you are planning to build a web app that works both on desktop and mobile, then you should consider of using Pure from Yahoo. Pure has much better performance when it comes to mobile devices than Bootstrap. As its name suggests, Pure comes as a pure CSS framework only.  Build on top of Normalize.css, Pure has an extremely small file size with just 4.5KB (minified and gzip).

2. UI Kit


UIkit is a free, lightweight and modular front-end framework. Developed with LESS, UIkit has a well-structured, expandable and maintainable code. It also offers a grid system which is responsive, fluid and nestable. With UIkit you can build navigation, buttons, modals, dropdown and more responsively. Its comprehensive documentation will make you easier to get started with UIkit.

3. Groundwork


Groundwork is a lightweight, flexible and responsive front-end framework created & maintained by Gary Hepting. Built on top of Sass and Compass, Groundwork offers a great grid system which flexible,  fluid and nestable. With its grid system, you can build any layout type of layout that fit on any screen size.

4. Gumby


Gumby is a flexible and responsive framework built with the power of Sass for faster web development. Its customizer allows you to easily tweak and customize the entire UI kit design to meet your best preference. Gumby has multiple types of grids with different column variations, but by default, Gumby comes with 960 grid system.

5. HTML5 Boilerplate

Just like its name, HTML5 Boilerplate provides you HTML5 ready template that has been optimized to meet the most standard of HTML new features. By using this template, you can create a fast, robust and responsive site that is able to adapt to any kind of browser, even the old ones like Internet Explorer.

6. Skeleton


Skeleton is a lightweight CSS framework that uses a 12-column grid system. Unlike Bootstrap or Foundation, Skeleton provides you with some fundamentals components only like button, lists, table, forms which aimed to kick-start your development process.

7. Bootflat


Bootflat is an open source CSS framework that is built with the powerful Bootstrap 3. Bootflat is designed to create a stunning flat web design with faster, easier and less repetitive way. Therefore, its UI Kit comes with beautiful PSD user interface pack that you can use on your website, iOS or Android project.

8. Inuit


Inuit.css is another great CSS famework that focuses on Mobile First approach and leave all the design to you. While many other framework are coming with their own built in design CSS, Inuit.css, however, don’t. Inuit.css works in OOCSS (Object Oriented CSS) manner which is a fast, scalable and maintainable method of writing reusable CSS.

9. 960 Grid System


960 Grid System is a front-end framework that can streamline your web development workflow based on a 960px wide container. The container is then can be sliced up into 12, 16 or even 24 columns for easier laying out content.

10. Materialize


Built based on Google’s Material Design principles, Materialize has come as a modern responsive front-end framework. This framework is very suitable for those who want to implement Material Design look and feel into their website without any complexity. It features card design, ripple effect animation, Sass mixin, drag out mobile menu and many more.

11. Jeet


Jeet is a fast, flexible and most advance grid system available today.  Jeet helps you build grids on the fly in a very intuitive, clean, manner. It supports almost all modern and old browsers.

12. Susy


Susy is an automated grid system that can help you build web layout in any kind of column you want. It gives you freedom and flexibility to build design of your choice. It’s able to handle whether your design has 5, 12, 24, 48 or unequal columns.

13. Metro UI


Metro UI is a 12-grid based framework that is inspired by the Windows 8 Metro style interface. It’s very easy to use and has style with a bunch of common components like button, tile, menu, date picker and much more. There is also a News Portal template to get you started easily.

14. HTML KickStart


HTML KickStart is an ultra-lean HTML, CSS and Javascript boilerplate for extremely faster web development. HTML KickStart was developed based on Twitter Bootstrap with the icon support from Font Awesome. With its ready menu, list, tables, buttons, grid system, and many great elements, you will save the process of your web project creation up to 10 hours or even more.

15. Simple Grid


Simple Grid is a very lightweight, responsive grid system. It’s not like other frameworks that have that fancy button, menu, table, etc, Simple Grid offers only a pure grid. The grid feature is based on 1140 px screen size with 12 columns that you can customize to get your best layout.

16. Foundation


Foundation is most likely the toughest rival for Twitter Bootstrap. It is very well documented, stable, flexible and open source front-end framework. It has many useful tools for creating responsive, mobile first web project faster. It supports almost all the available browser today, except for IE7. Although many developers are mostly using Foundation for HTML and CSS only, but you have option to port it with Sass and Rails.

17. Material UI


Material UI is another framework that implements Material Design specification. The only thing that differentiate it from Materialize is it’s built by the love of React Javascript library from Facebook. It has many beautiful UI components that you may use freely on your web page.

18. Topcoat


TopCoat is a robust front-end framework made by Adobe team for developing web application designed with speed in mind. Every single detail in TopCoat is optimized for performance priority. It also offers you with customizable theme, open source font and also PSD UI Kit to use with your project.

19. Ink


Ink is a front-end framework that is developed for quicker UI development using HTML, CSS and Javascript, just like Bootstrap does. You can create modern layout easily with some reusable interface elements like table, tabs, data picker, modal, sortable list, tree view, gallery, form validator and more. It also enables you to have DOM manipulation, communication facilities and fancy page effects with its JS Core engine.

20. Onsen UI


Onsen UI is a hybrid framework that works well with PhoneGap and Cordova. With AngularJS, jQuery, Font Awesome and TopCoat as the foundation, Onsen UI can be a promising tools for developing amazing mobile apps. Onsen UI can help you build mobile apps easily using the concept of Web Components.

21. CardinalCSS


CardinalCSS is a CSS framework built with a focus on performance, readability and most importantly maintainability. CardinalCSS adopts some modern approaches such as mobile-first for shaping up the grid; and CSS Box Model that allows you to easily determine element width and height.

CardinalCSS also comes with a handful of helper classes that allow you to quickly apply styles upon an element, for example, the drop-cap which applies the drop-cap effect for the first character in the paragraph.

22. ConciseCSS


ConciseCSS is a CSS framework – without the bloat. It is a lean framework built on top of Sass, LESS, and Stylus which paves its golden path to CSS maintainability. But, if you prefer plain simple vanilla CSS, you can have that as well.

Similarly, ConciseCSS also comes with base styles for essential elements such as the headings, paragraphs, tables, forms, and a set of helpers class to create button UI.

23. Furtive

Furtive is a mobile-first CSS framework built around the cutting-edge web standards like the use of Flexbox for the grid and rem unit for sizing elements (including font size). Furtive retains a small CSS footprint by not supporting older browsers (*cough* Internet Explorer) since they require some CSS hacking. Hence Furtive is a perfect framework if you are designing a website for the future.

24. BassCSS


BassCSS offers a lightweight set of base element styles, utilities, layout and color styles, in modular form for buildilng a responsive web application. The SCSS files are included to customize the style easily. You can play with typography, white space, breakpoints, and UI elements.

25. Mueller


Mueller is a modular responsive grid system built on top of Sass and Compass. With Mueller, you can build the grid either by adding classes straight to the HTML elements, or if you prefer your HTML elements to be neat and clean, using the grid() function. Mueller grid can be used in tandem with the Masonry Javascript library to create a Pinterest-like layout.

26. Tuktuk


Tuktuk is a very unique name for a framework. Compared to Bootstrap or Foundation, Tuktuk is much lighter as it only comes with just the proper amount of components to build a presentable website including for the grid system, basic styling for typography, tables, and a couple of UI like navbar and modals.



Bulma is based on flexbox and SASS. It offers everything you need for the creation of a web site or web app. It has a grid system, single elements and more complex components. There is no Javascript included, so if you are working with modals for example you have to come up with your own implementation. This makes it easy to integrate it in your react app for example.

28. Semantic UI


Semantic UI is big. You should use this if you are looking for a framework with lots of features. It offers simple elements and components but also views and modules in various themes. You can also build your own themed version with only the features you need.



Milligram is a “minimalist CSS framework”. There are no Javascript features included. It’s not an UI framework but more a starter kit for your website/ web app.



MUI also follows the guidelines of Google’s Material Design. What is special about this one is that it is also available as a REACT, Angular, WebComponents or HTML Email framework. The documentation says that it has an “extreme hackability”. I haven’t tried it out yet. But that’s a feature you might need 😉


What is Bootstrap

What is Bootstrap?

When Twitter was expanding, Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton realized the need for a standardized framework and tools that would facilitate consistency and ease of development in the expansion of the Twitter website. The project took a life of its own and we got an HTML and CSS toolkit, named Bootstrap or formerly Twitter Bootstrap, which made the process of web development a little easier. Bootstrap is currently used by many different types of web sites, including NASA and MSNBC, and is currently one of the most popular open source projects on GitHub.

To convert a PSD image design to a responsive HTML website, the most important step is to write the style CSS that ultimately dictates whether the site is responsive or not. Bootstrap helps in writing this CSS code. To be more precise- it’s the CSS code that could be used in creating a responsive website.?

Now, the question comes what exactly is bootstrap and how can we use it. To explain it in a single line- ‘Bootstrap is a collection of tools and HTML/CSS templates that could be used to build a website’. And since Bootstrap version 2.0 (the latest version of bootstrap), has support for responsive web development it can be used to build a responsive website. As for what it can be used for, well it can develop any type of website and could be used with any type of content management system (CMS) that has support of integrating custom CSS, such as WordPress, Joomla, Drupal etc. The best thing about this framework is that it is supported by every major web browser such as Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.

What is a responsive website?

A responsive website provides optimal viewing experience to a website even when viewed through different screen sizes. Here, optimal viewing means accessing website content with minimum to no left to right scrolling and good legibility of text, images, and other media. Therefore, for optimal viewing the website must automatically adjust its rendering width, images sizes, and text size according to viewing screen size.

How responsive websites are generally made?

To make a mobile compatible site, web developers generally use two major techniques. One is by using an altogether separate domain such as or, and redirecting the mobile traffic to this domain. Of course this domain contains the mobile optimized version of the site. This approach, though gets the job done, has a number of disadvantages related to search engine optimization of a site such as duplicate content, promotion of two separate domains, and diluting of link juice.

The other way is by creating a responsive website cleverly using CSS style sheets to render a different styled version of a website according to the screen size. The size of the screen is detected through Media Queries. The CSS used in this screen size loads a rendering style that most fits the screen. The only disadvantage is that the latest versions of CSS are not supported by old browsers such as Internet Explorer 6 thus they cannot display such CSS sites optimally. But this is also changing as more and more people are shifting to the newer versions of browsers.

Bootstrap: Making life easier for web developers

Bootstrap is a pre built CSS framework that could be used by web developers to create websites of any type. The framework provides tools that the developers can call from website’s HTML. Bootstrap has the basic style definition of all the major HTML components that you can use in your website such as alerts, modals, tool-tips, button dropdowns, dropdowns, button groups, navbar, navigational tabs, pills, lists, labels, page headers and hero unit, thumbnails, progress bars, accordion, carousel, and typeahead.

Bootstrap is based upon LESS, a dynamic style sheet language that is considered to be an extension of CSS. As such- LESS is considered to be way faster than other extensions such as SASS. And since it is written in JavaScript, it is easier to understand by a majority of web developers as most are well versed in JavaScript.

Though some professional web developers prefer to create custom code as much as possible, many uses Bootstrap CSS files to create their websites. The only disadvantage of Bootstrap is that it does not fully support HTML5 and is not completely built in CSS3. This is because only the latest browsers fully support these two technologies and most web users have not updated to these browser versions. So, to make a site completely compatible with most of the web browsers, some sacrifices have to be made.

Bootstrap Grid

Bootstrap comes with a 12 column grid and is available in both fixed and fluid grids. For those who don’t know, fixed grids use exact column width in pixels whereas fluid grids uses relative lengths that is represented in percentages.

To make the website responsive, Bootstrap uses the fliud grid system that modifies the width of the column in the grid and resizes the heading and the text accordingly. Similarly the fluid grid also resizes the images as image sizes are also entered in percentages. In addition to make a responsive site you have to use stack elements instead of float. Though you can make a responsive site using fixed width, but it is not generally preferred.


Common Mistakes in CSS At Convert PSD To HTML

There’s more to writing good front-end code than knowing every HTML tag, CSS selector, or the latest front-end features and techniques.

Using real-world examples found on several websites, let’s take a look at common “red flags” to look for when writing code and evaluating its quality.

Complex, Overqualified Selectors

Look out for complex CSS selectors. For example:

.wrapper .main .post a {…}

These are one of the most “expensive” selectors in CSS because browsers have to parse a lot of extra elements and selectors. Try to make your selectors as lean as possible:

.post a {…}

Instead of having an overly specific selector, it’s usually best to create a class for a particular element:

.continue {…}

Qualifiers in selectors should also be avoided, as they are not reusable, too specific, and create more work for the browser. The nav and p qualifiers in the following selectors are an example of this: {

float: left;


p.intro {

font-weight: bold;


What if at some point you need to use the .social class in a ul or the .intro class in a span? Avoid having to dig through your CSS to fix what you should have done correctly from the get-go, or worse, rewriting the rules unnecessarily.

Relying on Parent Selectors

A parent selector lowers the specificity of a child element. Sometimes you can’t avoid them (with anchor elements, for example), but if you have selectors like the following:

.sidebar {


.sidebar .title {


a better approach is using a namespace as a modifier.

.sidebar {


.sidebar-title {


This keeps sidebar-title self-contained and modular — it doesn’t rely on the parent selector and can be used anywhere.

Repeating CSS

Avoid repeating the same chunks of code. Look for property/value pairs that are repeated multiple times throughout the stylesheet, then logically group them so that there’s only one occurrence of that block of code.

.label {

display: inline-block;


.button {

display: inline-block;

border-radius: 10px;


.field {

display: inline-block;

border-radius: 10px;

padding: 5px;


Always think “DRY”(Don’t Repeat Yourself):



.field {

display: inline-block;



.field {

border-radius: 10px;


.field {

padding: 5px;


Resetting and Forcing CSS Values

Keep an eye out for rules where you are rewriting CSS properties or setting them back to their initial values. For example:

h2 {

font-size: 1.2em;

font-weight: 700;

padding-bottom: .5em;

border-bottom: 1px solid;


h2 styles are then reset further down in another rule:

.post h2 {

font-weight: 500;

padding-bottom: 0;

border-bottom: none;


When adding new components, you shouldn’t need to recode or undo patterns and problems you’ve already solved with existing CSS. Instead, a better solution would be to create the following rules:

h2 {

font-size: 1.2em;


.secondary-headline {

font-weight: 700;

padding-bottom: .5em;

border-bottom: 1px solid;


.post-title {

font-weight: 500;


Also, !important declarations should never be used to force a CSS value –– avoid using them unless absolutely necessary.

.last {

border: none !important;


!important breaks the natural order of the cascade and, when abused, can lead to maintenance and specificity nightmares. There are few use cases for !important, for example: temporarily testing or debugging CSS issues, overriding certain inline styles when you have no control over the HTML, and aiding accessibility –– just be careful with it.

Excessive Markup

Look for unnecessary use of HTML tags being used for layout:

<p><h4>UX – User Experience Design</h4></p>

There’s no need to wrap the block-level h4 in a p. If you’re using the <p> to give the <h4> extra margins or padding, that needs to be solved in the CSS instead.

IDs Instead of Classes

Avoid using an ID wherever you can use a class. IDs are heavy on specificity and cannot be reused. The nav ID shown below can only be used once in a page.

<ul id=”nav”>


What if you need to add a nav component? Use classes instead:

<ul class=”main-nav  nav”>


<ul class=”footer-nav  nav”>


.nav a {

display: block;

color: white;

padding: 5px;


.main-nav a {

border-bottom: 1px solid;

font-size: 1.1em;


.footer-nav a {

border-bottom: 1px dotted grey

font-size: .85em;


It’s best to use IDs as JavaScript hooks or as fragment identifiers in a page. Certainly avoid using one ID for styling, JavaScript, and as a fragment identifier. Doing so will make your architecture fragile because you’re setting up dependencies among CSS, JavaScript, and the fragment identifier.

Closing Thoughts

Front-end code that is poorly thought-out can be a strain on maintenance and development in the long run. When writing code, your goal should be making sure that it’s reusable, maintainable, and scalable. Your CSS should also be predictable, so if you need to update or add new components, they shouldn’t affect other parts of your site.

Keep in mind that at some point your site or application will need to scale, which might require more developers working on and maintaining the code. That’s why it’s important to write code that can be easily managed by designers and developers who are looking at our code for the first time.

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Why You Need to Convert PSD to HTML using Bootstrap?


If you are a web designer then you are aware of PSD and its importance in your life. And, if you do not know about PSD then just consider it as a basic tool of web designing. It is a proprietary file that is basically utilized in the design to code process of web designing.

It is easy to edit image layers while utilizing PSD file format. Designer can’t edit the layers of image after he/she completes the image and convert it into a non-propriety file such as .GIF, .JPEG or .TIFF.

Web designers whether beginner or experienced, must know how to convert PDF to HTML to design creative and responsive websites. If they do the conversion using CSS Code then this conversion provide them more detailed and easy ways to create site more accessible.

Writing CSS code is not at all a simple task and for that you need a competent framework. Now, it is easy for you to do this task through Twitter Bootstrap. It is an efficient combination of HTML, JS and CSS from Twitter. Bootstrap is a best invention of Twitter which is now widely used to create innovative and responsive, cross browser compatible and more user friendly websites without any problem.

Bootstrap is the latest, intuitive and most favorable framework in the current market trends among web designers all over the world because as you know that to convert PSD to HTML is very important part of website designing. So, you just need to search for professional, reliable and experienced company such as Only PSD 2 HTML to convert PSD to HTML.

You can extent your images by utilising Bootstrap with your customised requirement. Bootstrap provide a facility of Fluid Grid feature that makes image scaling much easier and hassle free to its users. You can use 12 Column Grid that helps you to put responsive features together to the site. It is compatible with almost all image modes like RGB, Duotone, Bitmap, Lab, Multichannel, Grayscale, Indexed Color, and CMYK. It supports from channels to multilevel information and from clipping paths to transparency levels.

Now, the question arise in your mind that why you should go with the Twitter Bootstrap than others. All the above benefits of bootstrap make it different from other frameworks. The main benefit of it is that it is more responsive, efficient and powerful mobile first front-end framework with some great features for fast and easy web development. Using Bootstrap, you can create well documented and detailed CSS code.

If you are looking to create the pixel perfect, user friendly and very responsive website then choose a reliable firm. Get a reliable PSD to HTML using Bootstrap or PSD to Bootstrap service provider company – Only PSD 2 HTML.